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.\"	$OpenBSD: jot.1,v 1.23 2016/08/12 21:49:31 tb Exp $
.\"	$NetBSD: jot.1,v 1.2 1994/11/14 20:27:36 jtc Exp $
.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 1993
.\"	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\"    without specific prior written permission.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\"	@(#)jot.1	8.1 (Berkeley) 6/6/93
.\"
.Dd $Mdocdate: August 12 2016 $
.Dt JOT 1
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm jot
.Nd print sequential or random data
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm jot
.Bk -words
.Op Fl cnr
.Op Fl b Ar word
.Op Fl p Ar precision
.Op Fl s Ar string
.Op Fl w Ar word
.Oo Ar reps Oo Ar begin Oo Ar end
.Oo Ar s Oc Oc Oc Oc
.Ek
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Nm
is used to print out increasing, decreasing, random,
or redundant data, usually numbers, one per line.
.Pp
The options are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width "-p precision"
.It Fl b Ar word
Just print
.Ar word
repetitively.
.It Fl c
This is an abbreviation for
.Fl w Ic %c .
.It Fl n
Do not print the final newline normally appended to the output.
.It Fl p Ar precision
Print only as many digits or characters of the data
as indicated by the integer
.Ar precision .
In the absence of
.Fl p ,
the precision is the greater of the numbers
.Ar begin
and
.Ar end .
The
.Fl p
option is overridden by whatever appears in a
.Xr printf 3
conversion following
.Fl w .
.It Fl r
Generate random data.
By default,
.Nm
generates sequential data.
.It Fl s Ar string
Print data separated by
.Ar string .
Normally, newlines separate data.
.It Fl w Ar word
Print
.Ar word
with the generated data appended to it.
Octal, hexadecimal, exponential, ASCII, zero-padded,
and right-adjusted representations
are possible by using the appropriate
.Xr printf 3
conversion specification inside
.Ar word ,
in which case the data is inserted rather than appended.
.El
.Pp
The last four arguments specify the length of the output sequence,
its start and end points, and the step size.
Any three of these arguments determine the fourth.
If the given and computed values for
.Ar reps
conflict, the lower value is used.
.Pp
Arguments can be omitted by specifying a
.Ql - .
The default values for
.Ar reps ,
.Ar begin ,
.Ar end ,
and
.Ar s
are 100, 1, 100, and 1, respectively.
Omitted values are computed if possible or assume the default.
A special case arises if only
.Ar begin
and
.Ar end
are specified:
if
.Ar begin
is greater than
.Ar end
then
.Ar s
is set to \(mi1, otherwise it is set to 1;
afterwards
.Ar reps
is computed.
.Pp
.Ar reps
is expected to be an unsigned integer,
and if given as zero is taken to be infinite.
.Ar begin
and
.Ar end
may be given as real numbers or as characters
representing the corresponding value in ASCII.
The last argument must be a real number.
.Pp
Random numbers are obtained through
.Xr arc4random 3 .
Historical versions of
.Nm
used
.Ar s
to seed the random number generator.
This is no longer supported.
The name
.Nm
derives in part from
.Dq iota ,
a function in APL.
.Ss Rounding and truncation
The
.Nm
utility uses double precision floating point arithmetic internally.
Before printing a number, it is converted depending on the output
format used.
.Pp
If no output format is specified or the output format is a
floating point format
.Po
.Sq f ,
.Sq e ,
.Sq g ,
.Sq E ,
or
.Sq G
.Pc ,
the value is rounded using the
.Xr printf 3
function, taking into account the requested precision.
.Pp
If the output format is an integer format
.Po
.Sq c ,
.Sq d ,
.Sq o ,
.Sq x ,
.Sq u ,
.Sq D ,
.Sq O ,
.Sq X ,
.Sq U ,
or
.Sq i
.Pc ,
the value is converted to an integer value by truncation.
.Pp
As an illustration, consider the following command:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
$ jot 6 1 10 0.5
1
2
2
2
3
4
.Ed
.Pp
By requesting an explicit precision of 1, the values generated before rounding
can be seen.
The .5 values are rounded down if the integer part is even,
up otherwise.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
$ jot -p 1 6 1 10 0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
.Ed
.Pp
By offsetting the values slightly, the values generated by the following
command are always rounded down:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
$ jot -p 0 6 .9999999999 10 0.5
1
1
2
2
3
3
.Ed
.Pp
Another way of achieving the same result is to force truncation by
specifying an integer format:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
$ jot -w %d 6 1 10 0.5
.Ed
.Sh EXAMPLES
Print 21 evenly spaced numbers increasing from \-1 to 1:
.Pp
.Dl $ jot 21 \-1 1.00
.Pp
Generate the ASCII character set:
.Pp
.Dl $ jot \-c 128 0
.Pp
Generate the strings xaa through xaz:
.Pp
.Dl $ jot \-w xa%c 26 a
.Pp
Generate 20 random 8-letter strings:
.Pp
.Dl "$ jot \-r \-c 160 a z | rs \-g0 0 8"
.Pp
Infinitely many
.Xr yes 1 Ns 's
may be obtained through:
.Pp
.Dl $ jot \-b yes 0
.Pp
Thirty
.Xr ed 1
substitution commands applying to lines 2, 7, 12, etc. is the result of:
.Pp
.Dl $ jot \-w %ds/old/new/ 30 2 \- 5
.Pp
Create a file containing exactly 1024 bytes:
.Pp
.Dl $ jot \-b x 512 > block
.Pp
To set tabs four spaces apart starting
from column 10 and ending in column 132, use:
.Pp
.Dl $ expand \-`jot \-s, \- 10 132 4`
.Pp
To print all lines 80 characters or longer:
.Pp
.Dl $ grep `jot \-s \&"\&" \-b . 80`
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr ed 1 ,
.Xr expand 1 ,
.Xr rs 1 ,
.Xr yes 1 ,
.Xr arc4random 3 ,
.Xr printf 3
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
utility first appeared in
.Bx 4.2 .
.Sh AUTHORS
.An John A. Kunze