aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/usr.bin/tail/tail.1
blob: 9d5744f86af735b98e1354aa2693d2f15bf550ac (plain)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
.\"	$OpenBSD: tail.1,v 1.23 2015/10/25 21:50:32 zhuk Exp $
.\"	$NetBSD: tail.1,v 1.4 1994/11/23 07:42:13 jtc Exp $
.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1990, 1991, 1993
.\"	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
.\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\"    without specific prior written permission.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\"	@(#)tail.1	8.1 (Berkeley) 6/6/93
.\"
.Dd $Mdocdate: October 25 2015 $
.Dt TAIL 1
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm tail
.Nd display the last part of a file
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm tail
.Op Fl f | r
.Oo
.Fl b Ar number |
.Fl c Ar number |
.Fl n Ar number |
.Fl Ar number
.Oc
.Op Ar
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
utility displays the contents of
.Ar file
or, by default, its standard input, to the standard output.
.Pp
The display begins at a byte, line, or 512-byte block location in the
input.
Numbers having a leading plus
.Pq Ql +
sign are relative to the beginning of the input, for example,
.Ic -c +2
starts the display at the second
byte of the input.
Numbers having a leading minus
.Pq Ql -
sign or no explicit sign are
relative to the end of the input, for example,
.Ic -n 2
displays the last two lines of the input.
The default starting location is
.Ic -n 10 ,
or the last 10 lines of the input.
.Pp
The options are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl b Ar number
The location is
.Ar number
512-byte blocks.
.It Fl c Ar number
The location is
.Ar number
bytes.
.It Fl f
Do not stop when end-of-file is reached; instead, wait for additional
data to be appended to the input.
If the file is replaced (i.e., the inode number changes),
.Nm
will reopen the file and continue.
If the file is truncated,
.Nm
will reset its position to the beginning.
This makes
.Nm
more useful for watching log files that may get rotated.
The
.Fl f
option is ignored if there are no
.Fa file
arguments and the standard input is a pipe or a FIFO.
.It Fl n Ar number | Fl Ar number
The location is
.Ar number
lines.
.It Fl r
The
.Fl r
option causes the input to be displayed in reverse order, by line.
Additionally, this option changes the meaning of the
.Fl b ,
.Fl c ,
and
.Fl n
options.
When the
.Fl r
option is specified, these options specify the number of bytes, lines
or 512-byte blocks to display, instead of the bytes, lines, or blocks
from the beginning or end of the input from which to begin the display.
The default for the
.Fl r
option is to display all of the input.
.El
.Pp
If more than one file is specified,
.Nm
precedes the output of each file with the following, in order
to distinguish files:
.Pp
.Dl ==> Ar file No <==
.Sh EXIT STATUS
.Ex -std tail
.Sh EXAMPLES
To display the last 500 lines of the file
.Ar foo :
.Pp
.Dl $ tail -500 foo
.Pp
Keep
.Pa /var/log/messages
open, displaying to the standard output anything appended to the file:
.Pp
.Dl $ tail -f /var/log/messages
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr cat 1 ,
.Xr head 1 ,
.Xr sed 1
.Sh STANDARDS
The
.Nm
utility is compliant with the
.St -p1003.1-2008
specification.
.Pp
The flags
.Op Fl br
are extensions to that specification.
.Pp
The historic command line syntax of
.Nm
is supported by this implementation.
The only difference between this implementation and historic versions
of
.Nm tail ,
once the command line syntax translation has been done, is that the
.Fl b ,
.Fl c
and
.Fl n
options modify the
.Fl r
option, i.e.,
.Ic -r -c 4
displays the last 4 characters of the last line
of the input, while the historic tail (using the historic syntax
.Ic -4cr )
would ignore the
.Fl c
option and display the last 4 lines of the input.
.Sh HISTORY
A
.Nm
command appeared in
.At v7 .